EPG in Speech and Language Pathology

“EPG therapy derives its effectiveness from enabling children to develop conscious control of the internal cues associated with tongue control.” (p. 520).Gibbon, F. E., & Wood, S. E. (2010). Visual feedback therapy with electropalatography. In Williams, A. L., McLeod, S., & McCauley, R. J. (Eds.) Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children, (509–536). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

“Change in tongue position can be more accurately monitored and evaluated by the client as well as by the clinician linking the client as a powerfully active participant in treatment.” (p. 73).Schmidt, A. M. (2007). Evaluating a new clinical palatometry system. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 9(1), 73–81.

1. Dagenais, P. (1995). Electropalatography in the treatment of articulation/phonological disorders. Journal of Communication Disorders, 28(4), 303–329.

2. Dent, H. (2001). Electropalatography: A tool for psycholinguistic therapy. In Stackhouse, J. & Wells, (Eds.), B. Children’s speech and language difficulties: A psycholinguistic framework. (205–248). London: Whurr Publishers.

3. Hardcastle, W. J., & Gibbon, F. E. (2009). Electropalatography as a research and clinical tool: 30 years on. In Powell, T. W., & Ball, M. J. (Eds.), (2010). Clinical Linguistics: Critical Concepts in Linguistics, Vol. II, Part 5. London: Routledge. [Re-published version of Hardcastle, W. J., & Gibbon, F. E. (2005). in Hardcastle, W. J. & Beck, J. M. (Eds.), A Figure of Speech: A Festschrift for John Laver, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, (p. 39–60).]

4. Gibbon, F., & Wood, S. (2010). Visual feedback therapy with electropalatography (EPG) for speech sound disorders in children. In Williams, L., McLeod, S., & McCauley, R. (Eds.) Interventions in Speech Sound Disorders, (509–536). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.

Articulation Disorders

“EPG can reveal inaccurate articulation gestures hidden from perceptual analyses and assessment alone.”Gibbon, F. E. (2004). Abnormal patterns of tongue-palate contact in the speech of individuals with cleft palate. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 18(4–5), 285–311.

“In visual biofeedback intervention, instrumentation is used to provide information about aspects of speech that are subtle or difficult to perceive under ordinary circumstances. Visual biofeedback provides a visual display of the child’s speech and a model of the correctly articulated sound, enabling the child to attempt to modify his or her production to achieve a closer match with the visual model.” (p. 208). Byun, T. M., & Hitchcock, E. R. (2012). Investigating the use of traditional and spectral biofeedback approaches to intervention for /r/ misarticulation. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21(3), 207–221.

1. Carter, P., & Edwards, S. (2004). EPG therapy for children with long-standing speech disorders: predictions and outcomes. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 18(6–8), 359–372.

2. Dagenais, P. (1995). Electropalatography in the treatment of articulation/phonological disorders. Journal of Communication Disorders, 28(4), 303–329.

3. Howard, S. (2004). Connected speech processes in developmental speech impairment: observations from an electropalatographic perspective. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 18(6–8), 405–417.

4. Hardcastle, W. J., Gibbon, F., & Scobbie, J. M. (1995). Phonetic and phonological aspects of English affricate production in children with speech disorders. Phonetica, 52(3), 242–250.

5. Suzuki, N., Dent, H., Wakumoto, M., Gibbon, F., Michi, K., & Hardcastle, W. (1994). A cross-linguistic study of lateral /s/ using electropalatography (EPG). Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Yokohama, Japan, Vol. 3, (1207–1210).

Cleft Palate

“EPG has proven its effectiveness in changing abnormal articulatory placement in cleft palate speech.” (p. 44). Gibbon, F., Crampin, L., Hardcastle, B., Nairn, M., Razzell, R., Harvey, L., & Reynolds, B. (1998). Cleftnet (Scotland): A network for the treatment of cleft palate speech using EPG. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. 33(S1), 44–49.

1. Carlin, N. (2004). A comparison of the tongue-palate contact patterns of an individual with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), and normal speakers. (Unpublished Honours Project). Queen Margaret University College, BSc Hons in Speech Pathology and Therapy, Edinburgh.

2. Fujiwara, Y. (2007). Electropalatography home training using a portable training unit for Japanese children with cleft palate. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology (Special Edition on EPG), 9(1), 65–72.

3. Gibbon, F., Law, J., & Lee, A. (2007). Electropalatography for articulation disorders associated with cleft palate (protocol). Cochrane collaboration, The Cochrane Library (Issue 4). London: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

4. Howard, S. (2004). Compensatory articulatory behaviours in adolescents with cleft palate: comparing the perceptual and instrumental evidence. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 18(4–5), 313–340.

Down Syndrome

Under the heading Indications for Future Research and Clinical Services the author states that error patterns in speech production of those with DS are complex and may be understood more fully from the use of instrumental methods, such as acoustic analysis, aerodynamic recordings, EPG, and movement transduction.” (p. 186). Kent, R. D., & Vorperian, H. K. (2013). Speech impairment in Down syndrome: a review. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 56(1),178–210.

1. Cleland, J., Timmins, C., Wood, S. E., Hardcastle, W. J., & Wishart, J. G. (2009). Electropalatographic therapy for children and young people with Down’s syndrome. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 23(12), 926–939.

2. McCann, J., & Wrench, A. (2007). A new EPG protocol for assessing DDK accuracy scores in children: A Down’s syndrome study. In Trouvain, J., & Barry, W. (Eds.) Proceedings of the16th International Congress of the ICPhS, 1985–1988.

3. Timmins, C., Cleland, J., Wood, S. E., Hardcastle, W. J., & Wishart, J. G. (2009). A perceptual and electropalatographic study of /∫/ in young people with Down’s syndrome. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 23(12), 911–925.

4. Wood S., Wishart, J., Hardcastle, W., Cleland, J., & Timmins, C. (2009). The use of electropalatography (EPG) in the assessment and treatment of motor speech disorders in children with Down’s syndrome: evidence from two case studies. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12(2), 66–75.


1. Forster, C., & Hardcastle, W. (1998). An electropalatographic (EPG) study of the speech of two stuttering subjects. International Journal of Language Communication Disorders, 33(S1) 358–363.

2. Harrington, J. (1987). Coarticulation and stuttering: an acoustic and electropalatographic study. In Peters, H., & Hulstijn, W. (Eds.) Speech Motor Dynamics in Stuttering, (381–392). New York: Springer-Verlag.

3. Wood, S. (1993). An EPG study of stuttering. Speech Research Laboratory (Work in Progress), University of Reading, 7, 107–134.

4. Wood, S. E. (1995). An electropalatographic analysis of stutterers’ speech. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 30(2), 226–236.


1. Barry, W. J., & Timmermann, G. (1985). Mispronunciations and compensatory movements of tongue-operated patients. British Journal of Disorders of Communication20(1), 81–90.

2. Fletcher, S. (1988). Speech production following partial glossectomy. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 53(3), 232–238.

3. Imai, S., & Michi, K. (1992). Articulatory function after resection of the tongue and floor of the mouth: palatometric and perceptual evaluation. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35(1), 68–78.

4. Suzuki, N. (1989). Clinical applications of EPG to Japanese cleft palate and glossectomy patients. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 3(1), 127–136.

5. Suzuki, N., Michi, K., & Yamashita, Y. (1984). The role of the dynamic palatograph as a diagnostic tool in oral surgery. Hjoring-Hansen, E. (Ed), Oral and Maxillo-facial surgery. Proceedings from the 8th International Conference on Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing, 501–509.

Hearing Impairment

1. Bacsfalvi, P., Bernhardt, B. M., & Gick, B. (2007). Electropalatography and ultrasound in vowel remediation for adolescents with hearing impairment. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 9(1), 36–45.

2. Martin, K. L., Hirson, A., Herman, R., Thomas, J., & Pring, T. (2007). The efficacy of speech intervention using electropalatography with an 18-year-old deaf client: A single case study. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology (Special Edition on EPG), 9(1), 46–56.

3. Nicolaidis, K. (2004). Articulatory variability during consonant production by Greek speakers with hearing impairment: an electropalatographic study. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 18(6–8), 419–432.

4. Pantelemidou, V., Herman, R., & Thomas, J. (2003). Efficacy of speech intervention using electropalatography with a cochlear implant user. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 17(4–5), 383–392.


1. Christensen, J. M., Fletcher, S. G., & McCutcheon, M. J. (1992). Esophageal speaker articulation of /s, z/: A dynamic palatometric assessment. Journal of Communication Disorders, 25(1), 65–76.

Malocclusion and Osteotomy

1. Cayley, A. S., Tindall, A. P., Sampson, W. J., & Butcher, A. R. (2000). Electropalatographic and cephalometric assessment of tongue function in open bite and non-open bite subjects. European Journal of Orthodontics, 22(5), 463–474.

2. Itoh, H., Matsuda Y., Sugawara, J., Fujita Y., Kanuma, A., & Yamashita, S. (1980). Observation of articulation by using electropalatography of adults with malocclusion. Journal of Dental Research, 59, 903. Proceedings of the 58th International Association of Dental Research, June 1980, Osaka, Japan.

3. Sugawara, J., Itoh, H., Suzuki, T., & Nakahara, H. (1984). Simultaneous observation of the lingual articulation, the mandibular movements and the nature of speech sound in mandibular prognathism. Proceedings from the 62nd International Association for Dental Research, March 15–18, Dallas, Texas, 63, 315.

4. Suzuki, N., Sakuma, T., Michi, K. T., & Ueno, T. (1981). The articulatory characteristics of the tongue in anterior openbite: observation by use of dynamic palatography. International Journal of Oral Surgery, 10(S1), 299–303.

5. Wakumoto, M., Isaacson, K., Friel, S., Suzuki, N., Gibbon, F., Nixon, F., Hardcastle, W. J., & Michi, K-I. (1996). Preliminary study of articulatory reorganisation of fricative consonants following osteotomy. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 48(6), 275–289.

Neurological (acquired)

1. Bartle-Meyer, C. J., Murdoch, B. E., & Goozée, J. V. (2009). An electropalatographic investigation of linguopalatal contact in participants with acquired apraxia of speech: A quantitative and qualitative analysis. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 23(9), 688–716.

2. Cheng, H. Y., Goozée, J. V., & Murdoch, B. E. (2005). Analysis of articulatory dynamics in dysarthria following brain injury in childhood using Electromagnetic Articulography and electropalatography. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 13(1), 15–35.

3. Hartelius, L., Theodoros, D., & Murdoch, B. (2005). Use of electropalatography in the treatment of disordered articulation following traumatic brain injury: a case study. Journal of Medical Speech-Language Pathology, 13(3), 189–204.

4. Kuruvilla, M. S., Murdoch, B. E., & Goozée J. V. (2008). Electropalatographic (EPG) assessment of tongue-to-palate contacts in dysarthric speakers following TBI. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 22(9), 703–725.

5. McAuliffe, M. J., Ward, E. C., Murdoch, B. E. (2007). Intra-participant variability in Parkinson’s disease: An electropalatographic examination of articulation. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 9(1), 13–19.

Neurological (developmental)

1. Gibbon, F. E., & Wood, S. E., (2003). Using electropalatography (EPG) to diagnose and treat articulation disorders associated with mild cerebral palsy: a case study. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 17(4–5), 365–374.

2. Gibbon, F. (2003). The contribution of EPG to the diagnosis of childhood apraxia of speech. In Shriberg, L. D., & Campbell, T. F. (Eds.) (2002). Proceedings of the 2002 Childhood Apraxia of Speech Research Symposium, Scottsdale Arizona. Compiled by the Hendrix Foundation, Carlsbad, California, 57–63.

3. Lundeborg, I., & McAllister, A. (2007). Treatment with a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography in a child with severe developmental dyspraxia. Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, 32(2), 71–79.

4. Morgan, A. T., Liegeois, F., & Occomore, L. (2007). Electropalatography treatment for articulation impairment in children with dysarthria post-traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury21(11), 1183–1193.

Eating and Swallowing

1. Chi-Fishman, G., & Stone, M. (1996). A new application for electropalatography: Swallowing. Dysphagia, 11(4), 239–247.

2. Hiiemae, K. M., & Palmer, J. B. (2003). Tongue movements in feeding and speech. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology & Medicine, 14(6), 413–429.

3. Horn, H., Kühnast, K., Axmann-Krcmar, D., & Göz, G. (2004). Influence of orofacial dysfunctions on spatial and temporal dimensions of swallowing movements. Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, 65(5), 376–88.

Accent Reduction

1. Bright, A. (1999). The palatometer as an instrument for accent reduction therapy with three native ESL Spanish speakers. (Unpublished master’s thesis). Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

2. Gibbon, F. E., Hardcastle, W. J., & Suzuki, H. (1991). An electropalatographic study of the /r/, /l/ distinction for Japanese learners of English. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 4, 153–171.

3. Schmidt, A. M., & Beamer, J. (1998). Electropalatography treatment for training Thai speakers of English. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 12(5), 389–403.

Typically Developing Children

1. Cheng, H. Y., Murdoch, B. E., Goozée, J. V., & Scott, D. (2007). Electropalatographic assessment of tongue-to-palate contact patterns and variability in children, adolescents, and adults. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50(2), 375–392.

2. Fletcher, S. G. (1989). Palatometric specification of stop, affricate and sibilant sounds. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 32(4), 736–748.